Log in

No account? Create an account
Laurel's Pluto Blog [entries|archive|friends|userinfo]

[ website | My Website ]
[ userinfo | livejournal userinfo ]
[ archive | journal archive ]

Pluto at 88: The Debate Continues [Feb. 18th, 2018|04:14 pm]

  • Pluto Discovery Animation

Pluto, known to humanity just since 1930, has been a solar system planet for four billion years but was discovered as one 88 years ago today, on February 18, 1930, by astronomer and planetary scientist Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff, Arizona.

An article published yesterday in The Washington Post reports that six-year-old Cara Lucy O’Connor of Ireland, with the help of her teacher, wrote a letter to NASA asking the agency to reinstate Pluto as a planet. Based on Cara’s statements in the article, it is fair to say she knows more about the solar system than most adults and maybe even more than the 333 non-planetary scientists at the 2006 IAU General Assembly who voted for the resolution that says dwarf planets are not planets at all.

Especially interesting are the comments written in response to the article, many of which are replete with the same errors and misconceptions that have now been repeated for 11-and-a-half years.

While Cara cannot be expected to know this, the controversial vote to demote Pluto was not made by NASA but by four percent of the IAU. Contrary to some people’s comments, NASA does not formally accept or reject the IAU decision. Instead, the agency leaves that decision up to its individual scientists. This is why some NASA websites continue to include Pluto as a planet while others do not.

Most scientists on NASA’s New Horizons mission do consider Pluto and all dwarf planets to be a subclass of planets. Since this group actually flew a probe to Pluto, the last thing NASA is likely to do is tell them they are wrong. Thanks to the mission team, humanity has seen Pluto up close and has learned more about this geologically active world than was known prior to the 2015 flyby during the 85 years since its discovery.

Among the misconceptions repeated in the comments are that there are Kuiper Belt Objects out there that are larger than Pluto (there are none known though even if there were, that would not preclude all of them from being considered planets), that the “experts” of the world made a scientific decision that has broad consensus among scientists ( they didn’t, and it doesn’t), that being in a belt of objects is the primary determinant of what an object is (this completely ignores an object’s intrinsic properties), that the Lambda factor in Alan Stern and Hal Levison’s 2000 paper precludes dwarf planets from being planets (it doesn’t), that Stern alone has a personal interest in Pluto being classed as a planet (he is far from alone; most planetary scientists take this same position), and that the number of planets has to be kept small because people can remember only at most ten numbers in a sequence (this is erroneously based on the notion that memorizing a list of names is the way to teach kids about the solar system).

In many ways, the IAU vote is a lot like climate change science funded by oil companies and other industries with special interests in a particular outcome. Those working on these studies know where their money is coming from and set out to “prove” a foregone conclusion in favor of their funders. So, too, the four percent of the IAU who voted in 2006 had a prior agenda of excluding Pluto from the list of planets. They then crafted a definition that met the conclusion they had already decided on. That is where the orbit clearing “requirement” came in. What we have here is something that looks like science but is not the real thing.

Some writers mock Cara with condescending remarks about how scientists should not give in to the “whim” of a child. Others frighteningly buy into the notion that the IAU is the body of experts who have been “empowered” by the world to make such decisions.

Nobody has so “empowered” the IAU. The organization appointed itself to do this, in spite of the fact that its true mission is to “safeguard the science of astronomy.” As I have noted many times, most of the 424 IAU members who voted in 2006 were not planetary scientists but other types of astronomers—hardly the ones who should be telling the world what is and is not a planet. IAU definitions are intended for internal organizational use, not meant to be imposed on the entire world. And no one raises the issue that science is not dictated by decree of “authority.” Galileo addressed this notion 400 years ago, yet it seems some have not learned the lessons of his experience. Like today’s planetary scientists, he observed phenomena that contradicted the decrees of the “authorities” of his day. He saw that Jupiter has moons, that Venus has phases, that the Moon has craters and diverse features, that the Milky Way is made up of numerous individual stars—and was not afraid to publicly present his findings in contradiction to those “authorities.”

Other comments include the old staples about how “Pluto doesn’t care” what it is called, a need to accept change based on new discoveries, claims that Pluto is fundamentally different from the larger planets, and even political statements regarding Barack Obama and Donald Trump.

I have no idea what position, if any, these politicians and others take regarding Pluto’s status. What I do know is that whether or not Pluto is viewed as different from the other planets is largely based on the criteria people choose for basing their decisions. Pluto has active geology, cryovolcanism, an atmosphere, interaction between that atmosphere and its surface, and a possible underground ocean. It is geologically layered into core, mantle, and crust. As for its eccentric orbit, Mercury also does not orbit on the same plane as most solar system planets, and many giant exoplanets in individual systems all orbit on different, far more eccentric planes than Pluto.

The argument that “Pluto doesn’t care” what it is called is a straw man. No one is saying Pluto does care. Instead, the point is that we should care because the public is being sold a bill of goods by being taught that one view in an ongoing debate is gospel truth. This is the tremendous disservice to the public caused by the IAU vote.

Why do so many textbooks, media outlets, websites, and educational materials report nothing about the ongoing debate over the status of dwarf planets, instead blindly falling in line with the IAU position? Why did Encyclopedia Britannica wait for the IAU vote to publish its 2006 edition? Both children and adults are being taught a falsehood as truth. They are being led to believe there is consensus on one specific interpretation of the solar system when this is far from the case.

The IAU has had its chance to rectify its mistake of determining what Pluto is before any spacecraft ever visited it and has repeatedly refused to do so. Apparently, only some new discoveries merit reopening the debate. Eris’s discovery does, but New Horizons’ findings of planetary processes on Pluto apparently do not.

Instead of giving this organization a degree of power it has never earned, it is time to look elsewhere for insight into what constitutes a planet. While this is an ever-evolving question that will always change with new discoveries, those we should look to for guidance are the scientists who actually gave us a first-hand view of Pluto, not a group of bureaucrats concerned largely about preserving their own power.

Finally, we often hear the argument that if Pluto were discovered today, it would not be considered a planet. This, too, is an interpretation. As we can see, the status of Eris, discovered in 2005, set off the latest round of this debate, which continues to this day. If Pluto had been found today, scientists would quickly be able to view it with the Hubble Telescope and determine it is spherical. They would be able to tell it is part of a binary planet system with Charon that also has four more tiny moons. They would be able to determine Pluto has an atmosphere and even visit it up close with a probe. It is fair to say that if Pluto were discovered today, the same debate over its status would occur.

Cara’s precociousness is reminiscent of that showed by another young person, who built his own telescopes, observed Mars and Jupiter, and drew very accurate depictions of those planets that earned him the job of searching for a new planet at Lowell Observatory—a planet he discovered 88 years ago today. Clyde Tombaugh never wavered on his position that Pluto is a full-fledged planet. Neither should Cara, and neither should we.

Tombaugh NH Pluto
linkpost comment

The Winter Solstice [Dec. 21st, 2017|03:35 pm]

Four months ago, Americans watched in wonder as a total solar eclipse traversed the nation, and, as many described, “turned day into night.” To many who experienced it, the eclipse was a sublime, even spiritual experience beyond anything words can describe.

Every year during the autumn, day, at least in some sense, turns to night, as the Sun sets earlier and earlier, to the point where, as I often note in frustration, “It gets dark in the middle of the day.” We know this is natural, that it is part of an annual cycle, yet it inspires a range and depth of emotions, from sadness to fear and for some, even fascination.

Those who spend time outdoors during this period can sense the Earth going to sleep and see what is left of life being pulled back into her.

The Winter Solstice, at its core, is about hope. What looks like death is just a period of dormancy. Nature needs the power to restart, and the great generator we call the Sun begins recharging on this day, slowly growing in strength until it opens the slumbering seeds underground and warms the Earth’s frozen surface, drawing the baby plants out into the light.

In an email message today, Sarah Rasmussen of Greenpeace wrote, “There is so much darkness in our world right now, from environmental disasters to climate change…But light is coming to push out the darkness, and we are fighting as hard as we can to ensure that it shines where it will do the most good…The darkest hour is just before the dawn.”

In the natural world, all the major action at the Winter Solstice is beneath the surface, unseen. It isn’t obvious. It can only be felt. Yet this invisible miracle, which from our perspective happens solely because we live on a planet with a 23.5 degree axial tilt, is as real, as profound, as intense as anything can be.

These words, put as a voiceover to a Gaelic version of “Silent Night” by Enya, capture the awe and wonder of this day.

“Yule—the Winter Solstice
Cold and bleak—
The longest night of the year
Though we are in darkness,
We know the Winter Solstice is near.
We light up the long nights with candlelight and evergreens.
We deck the halls with beautiful things.
The Earth is in a deep slumber…
The light is growing dimmer…
But, almost unnoticed,
The Solstice brings its miracle.
There is stillness,
Beautiful and serene…
Peacefully, quietly, the Sun is reborn.
In this small, still moment, the light returns again,
The promise kept
That death is not the end.
From this day, forward, the light and the warmth grow stronger.
But we remember this moment that brings the greatest gift of all.
The light brings with it not only the promise of rebirth,
But (the knowledge that) even in our darkest hour,
The light will always return.
It is the spirit of goodwill,
The warmth of our hearts.
It is peace and joy
That bring us out of the dark.
Give freely of yourself;
Help someone in need;
Bring light to the darkness.
Give hope, and offer peace.
Sending you warm tidings this Yule season.
May your biggest wishes come true!
Eat, drink, and be merry!
A blessed and happy Solstice to you!”

Enya, “Yule, The Winter Solstice,” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDQXSLRRAEs

It isn’t over. Darkness hasn’t won.

Keep hope alive!
linkpost comment

Break the Internet: Call Congress to Support Net Neutrality [Dec. 12th, 2017|12:28 am]
linkpost comment

Help Nickname New Horizons' Second Target [Nov. 18th, 2017|04:47 pm]
NASA's New Horizons mission to Pluto and the Kuiper Belt is looking for your ideas on what to informally name its next flyby destination, a billion miles (1.6 billion kilometers) past Pluto.

On New Year's Day 2019, the New Horizons spacecraft will fly past a small, frozen world in the Kuiper Belt, at the outer edge of our solar system. The target Kuiper Belt object (KBO) currently goes by the official designation "(486958) 2014 MU69." NASA and the New Horizons team are asking the public for help in giving "MU69" a nickname to use for this exploration target.

"New Horizons made history two years ago with the first close-up look at Pluto, and is now on course for the farthest planetary encounter in the history of spaceflight," said Thomas Zurbuchen, associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "We're pleased to bring the public along on this exciting mission of discovery."

After the flyby, NASA and the New Horizons project plan to choose a formal name to submit to the International Astronomical Union, based in part on whether MU69 is found to be a single body, a binary pair, or perhaps a system of multiple objects. The chosen nickname will be used in the interim.
"New Horizons has always been about pure exploration, shedding light on new worlds like we've never seen before," said Alan Stern, New Horizons principal investigator from Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

"Our close encounter with MU69 adds another chapter to this mission's remarkable story. We're excited for the public to help us pick a nickname for our target that captures the excitement of the flyby and awe and inspiration of exploring this new and record-distant body in space."

The naming campaign is hosted by the SETI Institute of Mountain View, California, and led by Mark Showalter, an institute fellow and member of the New Horizons science team. The website includes names currently under consideration; site visitors can vote for their favorites or nominate names they think should be added to the ballot. "The campaign is open to everyone," Showalter said. "We are hoping that somebody out there proposes the perfect, inspiring name for MU69."

The campaign will close at 3 p.m. EST/noon PST on Dec. 1. NASA and the New Horizons team will review the top vote-getters and announce their selection in early January.

Telescopic observations of MU69, which is more than 4 billion miles (6.5 billion kilometers) from Earth, hint at the Kuiper Belt object being either a binary orbiting pair or a contact (stuck together) pair of nearly like-sized bodies – meaning the team might actually need two or more temporary tags for its target.

"Many Kuiper Belt Objects have had informal names at first, before a formal name was proposed. After the flyby, once we know a lot more about this intriguing world, we and NASA will work with the International Astronomical Union to assign a formal name to MU69," Showalter said. "Until then, we're excited to bring people into the mission and share in what will be an amazing flyby on New Year's Eve and New Year's Day, 2019!"

To submit your suggested names and to vote for your favorites, go to: http://frontierworlds.seti.org

Media Contacts:
Rebecca McDonald, SETI Institute
(650) 960 4526, rmcdonald@seti.org
Michael Buckley, Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory
Laurie Cantillo, NASA Headquarters
linkpost comment

Atmospheric haze makes Pluto colder than previously thought [Nov. 18th, 2017|04:38 pm]
linkpost comment

Pluto’s bladed terrain is product of its complex geological history [Sep. 30th, 2017|09:20 pm]
linkpost comment

Pluto lander concept unveiled by Global Aerospace Corporation [Sep. 27th, 2017|01:15 pm]
linkpost comment

Eclipsing the IAU [Aug. 24th, 2017|10:15 pm]

This year, the anniversary of the disastrous IAU planet definition vote that continues to cause confusion and misconceptions among the public has gone largely unnoticed—probably because three days ago, a total solar eclipse mesmerized thousands if not millions across the North American continent, and both pictures and accounts of that event are still being actively shared online.

The fact that so many people viewed the solar eclipse, whether in person or online, illustrates that the general public can, under the right circumstances, become excited about astronomy. Though not to the same extent, space missions such as Cassini at Saturn and Juno at Jupiter or the various rovers on Mars generate similar enthusiasm and attention if they are given appropriate media attention.

Two years ago, the New Horizons flyby generated the same kind of fascination with Pluto. People are naturally inspired by the solar system and exploration of its many worlds.

Astronomers, both amateur and professional, should be encouraging this kind of excitement, should want to share the wonders of the sky with the public.

In 2006, four percent of the IAU did the exact opposite. They decreed that they and only they can determine the identity of celestial objects, as if they somehow own these objects. Reaction to their decision was justifiably negative because that decision amounted to rejection of any cultural or popular conception of the solar system.  Inherent in the message of the vote was the statement, the solar system is not yours. An object that looks and acts like a planet isn’t really a planet for some obscure reason no one really understands.

Keep things simple; keep the number of planets small. That was the real motivation behind the decision of August 24, 2006. And its message to the public was, when it comes to science, your views and understanding of the solar system mean nothing.

In his book Century’s End, author Hillel Schwartz discusses a controversy that has reared its head at the end of every century for 500-1,000 years. Does the new century start in the year 00 or 01?

There can actually be no correct answer to this question because the dating system we use is based on a mathematical error. It is a number line with numbers going from negative to positive but without the zero such a number line requires. The concept of the zero was unknown to the sixth-century monk who created the system.

Ordinarily, the first century would be the years 0-99, the second century the years 100-199, etc. But because the system has no zero, the first century, to have a total of 100 years, is actually the years 1-100, the second 101-200, etc. That is counterintuitive, as it tells us that the year 2000 is actually part of the old rather than the new century.

An interesting pattern developed over the last few hundred years. “Elites” such as scholars and intellectuals, advocated the counterintuitive method, the one viewed as requiring complex thinking rather than the popular conception. These people always insisted on centuries starting in the 01 year. In Boston, they refused to celebrate the beginning of the 20th century in 1900, then threw a grand public celebration in 1901.

In contrast, the general public went with the view that inherently sounded correct. They considered 1900 the beginning of the 20th century and 2000 the beginning of the 21st century.

The point here is a cultural one. The real issue at hand was the division between the “elites” and the common people. Anyone who wanted to sound educated or intellectual usually went with the counterintuitive 01 option, which supposedly showed they understood the complexity of the situation.

In reality, there can be no answer to this dilemma because the dating system is based on a mathematical error. Neither view is correct. This is why NASA, in its pages listing 5,000 years of solar and lunar eclipses, adds a zero to the count, assigning zero to the year 1 BCE, 1 to the year 2 BCE, etc. Predicting eclipses could not be done using an incorrect number line.

A similar phenomenon has happened regarding Pluto. Most members of the public grew up with Pluto being classed as a planet, and in the absence of a logical reason to change that, continue to consider it one. In contrast, those who want to seem intellectual or professional often adopt the other view, supposedly counterintuitive one. To them, “simple” people view Pluto as a planet while those who are more educated and intellectual understand the complexity of the issue and agree with the “experts” after understanding their line of thinking.

In other words, rejecting the “common” view supporting Pluto’s planethood has for some become a status symbol, a way of supposedly distinguishing themselves from the masses and showing they know more than the average person.

This is a psychological and cultural issue. It is not science, and it is bunk.

Eleven years after the vote on what the IAU has turned into a dogma they refuse to ever reconsider, the reality is many top planetary scientists in the world view Pluto as a planet. New Horizons sent back data showing Pluto to be a world that looks and acts like a planet. “Science” does not in any way support designating Pluto as anything else.

The August 21 solar eclipse showed the public enjoys engaging in astronomy and can be motivated to do so with appropriate outreach and education that brings people in rather than keeps them out.

In terms of media coverage and public attention, the eclipse also eclipsed the anniversary of the IAU vote.

One event involved embracing the public while the other centered on excluding them. We can only hope that renewed public engagement with astronomy continues to eclipse a bad decision by 424 non-experts 11 years ago.
linkpost comment

The Great American Eclipse, August 21, 2017 [Aug. 16th, 2017|03:53 pm]
This blog is mostly but not exclusively devoted to the issues of Pluto, dwarf planets, and planet definition. However, no planet or celestial body exists in isolation, and on various occasions, I have chosen to discuss other issues relating to planetary science and astronomy.

By now, most people are probably aware of the fact that a total solar eclipse will traverse the continental US on Monday, August 21. Locations outside the 70-mile path of totality, which crosses the country from northwest to southeast, as well as Canada, Central America, and the top of South America, will be treated to a partial solar eclipse.

Monday’s spectacle is a momentous occasion, a rare opportunity that should not be missed. While those who get to see the Sun completely covered by the Moon will hit the jackpot, the many more who will get to see a partial eclipse should not pass up the chance to do so—safely, of course, with eclipse glasses or indirectly using the pinhole projection method.

For anyone either clouded out or in other parts of the world, there will be numerous live online broadcasts in real time showing the stunning spectacle accompanied by educational commentary.

Unfortunately, some schools, both in and beyond the path of totality, are choosing to either do nothing for the eclipse or worse, keep students in rooms with drawn shades or no windows at all to prevent them from seeing it. Some are not even showing their students the online broadcasts.

These decisions rob children of a rare opportunity to see an unusual spectacle that can be watched safely. They reflect the way educational systems too often get things wrong, focusing on teaching to standardized tests rather than giving students an authentic learning experience.

In New Jersey, where I live, most schools don’t start until September, so this is not an issue. But in any state where schools are open, and bureaucrats make this indefensible choice, parents should either urge a policy change or keep their children home and watch the eclipse with them—even if that means watching online.

That’s right—Plutogirl is telling parents, even those not in the path of totality, in districts choosing to ignore the eclipse, to keep their kids home on August 21 and give them a better, firsthand educational experience than they would have received that day in school.

Such opportunities do not come around frequently. The US mainland has not seen a total solar eclipse since 1979. I would have loved to see one as a child, but there just weren’t any good ones during that time.

For people of all ages, this is a chance to take a break from disturbing national and world events and instead focus on the beauty of nature and a firsthand display of the motions of the Sun, Moon, and Earth. Seeing the results of these motions firsthand transforms our understanding of the solar system from abstract to experiential.

While I have personally seen several lunar eclipses, both total and partial, the only solar eclipse I’ve ever viewed personally was a very partial one in which, through telescopes made specifically for solar observing, one could see the Sun appear to have a small bite taken out of it.

I’ve known about this year’s total solar eclipse for at least ten years and probably longer. This one did not require traveling halfway around the world or to extreme climates. A decade ago, the first websites about this eclipse first went live online, emphasizing the goal of getting all Americans into the path of totality. I knew I wanted to go, and now it is actually happening.

Unfortunately, there are unscrupulous vendors who are selling counterfeit eclipse glasses that cannot be used to safely view the Sun. The American Astronomical Society has a list of reputable vendors of glasses and filters, which is posted at https://eclipse.aas.org/resources/solar-filters .

The website EarthSky has information on watching the eclipse safely, which everyone should read, at http://earthsky.org/tonight/how-to-watch-a-solar-eclipse-safely?utm_source=EarthSky+News&utm_campaign=8913d4e40d-EarthSky_News&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c643945d79-8913d4e40d-393746501&mc_cid=8913d4e40d&mc_eid=a8cafeccf3 .

Watch online through any of the live video streams listed at https://www.nasa.gov/eclipselive .

The Toshiba Vision screen in New York's Times Square will broadcast the program live in its entirety to give the public a big-screen view of the eclipse. Viewers in Times Square can listen to NASA coverage while observing it on the big screen by downloading the NASA app or going to https://www.nasa.gov/eclipselive .

SLOOH, a remote observatory with live feeds from telescopes around the world, will also broadcast the eclipse free online at https://www.slooh.com/shows/event-details/393 .

Catch NASA’s live coverage using any of the following:

·         NASA App for iOS -- http://itunes.apple.com/app/nasa-app/id334325516?mt=8
·         NASA App for Android -- https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=gov.nasa
·         NASA App for Amazon Fire and Fire TV -- http://amzn.com/B00ZVR87LQ
·         The NASA App also is available to Apple TV users.

A list of additional smartphone eclipse apps can be found at https://www.space.com/37568-best-total-solar-eclipse-apps.html .

Happy and Safe Viewing!
linkpost comment

Laurel Kornfeld's Pluto lecture: Entire Presentation [May. 29th, 2017|12:19 am]
linkpost comment

[ viewing | most recent entries ]
[ go | earlier ]